Astronomy Today ; study of the universe wave

 

  • Wavelength refers to the distance between two troughs or consecutive crests while wave frequency refers to the total number of wave crests that pass a particular point in a given unit of time. Wave velocity then constitutes the speed and direction of the wave and it is the product of wave length and wave frequency.
  • Blackbody is a radiator that has the capacity to absorb all forms of electronic radiation that hit it. The temperature of the blackberry emitter is directly proportional to the frequency of the predominant light that it emits. Another characteristic is that hotter black bodies tend to emit more energy than cooler ones.
  • Stefan’s law indicates that the rate that the back body emits radiation is directly proportional to its absolute temperature to power four.
  • The Doppler Effect denotes the difference in frequency at which the light or sound waves leave the source and at which they reach the observer that is cause by the relative motion of the wave source and observer. It implies that the sound of the objects near the observer is perceived to have a higher pitch than those away from the same. With regard to light, it makes the observer consider the light moving towards the same to be bluer and that moving away to be redder.
  • Spectroscopy is the examination of how visible light that is emitted by objects determines the density, temperature, composition and motion of the same. Astronomers use this to determine the composition as well as temperature of the star through sifting the spectrum of the respective star. This enables the same to determine the elements that constitute the star’s atmosphere. Using depths and shapes of the spectral line, they can then calculate the relative qualities.
  • Continuous spectrum is that which has no bands or lines especially relating to radiation, which is distributed over a range of wave lengths that are uninterrupted. Absorption spectrum is an electromagnetic spectrum that is broken by a certain pattern of bands or dark lines that is observed when the radiation passes through a given absorbing medium.
  • This largely depends on the chemical composition of the given cloud. Thus if this is mixed, it can culminate to both the emission and absorption spectra. From a broad outlook, hot gases lead to emission spectra while cold gases give absorption spectra. Further, if the given gases absorb the light and then re emits the same, this culminates in emission spectra. Absorption spectra on the other hand culminates from the gas that actually absorbing a specific wavelength that is also referred to as characteristic frequency.
  • Temperature, stellar composition and speed of star away or towards its radial velocity.
  • Reflecting telescopes do not experience chromatic aberration because of the fact that the reflected light’s dispersal does not follow a wavelength. With regard to the tube, a telescope’s is shorter hence less costly. Also implications of the short tube mean that the dome used in housing the reflector is less costly to construct.
  • It smears out images that are seen in telescopes.
  • Unlike the photographic plate, the CCD is highly sensitive to light, it responds well to the same and its images can be easily processed by specific computer software.
  • Studying at different wavelengths is advantageous because it reveals different chemistry, interactions and characteristics of temperatures. Analysis at different wavelengths enables clear understanding of the object as different interactions and physical processes can only be discerned at specific regions.
  • The sun which is star which takes up 99.89% of the entire mass of the solar system. It is also at the center of the same; Planets celestial objects that are nine in number and orbit around the sun; asteroids are smaller than planets and also referred to as planetoids. They orbit around the sun too; meteoroids are composed of sand sized particles; comets comprise of icy bodies and eccentric orbits and cosmic dust that is comprised of small particles found in space.
  • Comparative planetology refers to the study of the differences and similarities between different Planets. It is useful in enhancing understanding of formation and evolution of the solar system. Its ultimate goal is to enable one to predict future evolution of the solar system.
  • Terrestrial planets are solid while jovian are gaseous; jovian planets are more massive than the terrestrial planets and they move faster around the sun.
  • Our knowledge of the solar system has increased greatly in the recent past because of the invention of technological equipments such as telescopes use in the study of the objects contained therein.
  • First, the meteoroids are a representation of the mass that remained after condensation; asteroids have high carbon content whose dating corresponds to the time of formation;
  • We can deduce that the core has denser material than the surface.
  • Rayleigh scattering refers to the splitting of light by particles whose dimensions are relatively smaller than the respective wavelength that characterizes the radiation. This leads to the alteration of the phase of light although the frequency of the respective radiation is not modified. The noticeable effect of this on earth is the changing of the color of the sun at sunset
  • Usually, the path of the earthquakes vibration changes with density. Geologists study these vibrations to delineate various boundaries and density gradients that characterize the earth’s interior.
  • Plate tectonics
  • It protects us by repelling the charged particles that are produced from the sun and attracting the same to the poles or making them go around us.
  • The attraction of the moon through gravity makes the oceans to bulge in its direction. At the same time, another bulge occurs as the earth is also attracted towards the moon. Since this occurs as the earth is rotating, it culminates in the occurrence of a tide.
  • Mercury is not often seen with the naked eye because of the fact that it is in most instances close to the sun. This makes the sun to be visible when mercury actually should be.
  • Mercury’s surface is in most instances compared to the moons because they are almost similar in appearance. Just like the moon, it does not have a substantial atmosphere and lacks natural satellites. However, it comprises of a large iron core that is not found on the moon. In addition, unlike the moon, mercury does not have lunar like maria.
  • The moon being in synchronous orbit with the earth implies that it takes a similar period of time to spin. This condition was perpetuated by the gravitational interaction that is inherent between the two bodies.
  • A scarp refers to an expression of faulting that is topographic in nature and is formed when land surface is displaced by moving along a fault. Scarps are thought to have formed through tectonic displacement. Scientists think mercury was formed after most meteoritic bombardment has ended because its plains are characterized by extensive lava flow.
  • Lunar highlands are heavily crated and evidence from argon dating proves so.
  • The radio observation prompted the measurement of its thermal energy emission that indicated that it had a high temperature of close to 730K. This implied that unlike the previous perception, it was an arid that was inhabitable.
  • Unlike the earth’s atmosphere, Venus’s is hotter, contains sulphuric acid and has a greater percentage of carbon dioxide.
  • Unlike those found in other planets, the impact of craters on venues is fewer.
  • There are two large shield volcanoes, various lava domes, craters and volcanic structure like coronae.
  • Mars has large Canyon systems that are thought to have been formed through local tectonic activity. It also has enormous shield volcanoes that were formed through Martian volcanism.
  • It lacks late tectonics whose movement is known to disrupt growth of volcanoes.
  • Presence of large channels that can only be shaped by water.
  • They show that there was activity ago on the planet.
  • Their findings ascertained that the perceived historic moon 1o was a volcanic plume and the conceived Great Red Spot was a raging moon. Notably, this was unlike the previous perception.
  • It changed the perceptions regarding the moons on Jupiter. In particular, it provided vital information that explained the geology of moon Europa. Further, it highlighted it ascertained that magnetic fields were present on Ganymede. In addition, Galileo observed lightening water vapor and auroras. This implied that Jupiter had more multifaceted features than it was previously thought to have.
  • The gravitational force that is exerted on it by Jupiter. The inherent tidal stresses generate heat on this moon which makes its temperature to consistently be high. This culminates to evaporation of minerals in lo, causing volcanic activity.
  • Its fractured surface and the magnetometer experiment that implied presence of a material that can conduct electricity.
  • Europa and lo do not have meteor craters while Callisto and Ganymede have more craters. Cratering is depended on the degree of geological activity that is created by tension, gravitational stress, and location.
  • The atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn have high amounts of hydrogen and helium. In addition, their atmospheres are divided in to bright zones and dark bands. However, unlike Jupiter, Saturn has fewer cyclonic storms that are also short-lived. In addition, it experiences occasional powerful storms and has very strong winds. The subsequent reduction in the chemical composition of its bands makes Jupiter’s more colorful.
  • Shepherded satellite refers to a moon whose orbiting takes place close to the edge of a ring of a planet. This culminates in stabilization of the particles of the ring that is attributed to gravitational pull and confinement of the particular ring to a band.
  • He passed behind it and did not see it because his radio signals were cut off.
  • The presence of ice water plumes being ejected on the surface.
  • Its disappearance and re appearance after forty days.
  • Its discovery was accidental and was made when Herschel was surveying the sky.
  • It was because Uranus’ orbit failed to correspond with the expected path.
  • The magnetic fields of Neptune and Uranus are weaker than the earth’s.
  • This is because dust continuously settles on their surface. Further, the incoming radiation tends to reduce their hydrocarbons to carbons.
  • They do not have dust and are very thin. In addition, they have Uranus n their sides.
  • Trojan asteroids comprise a group of huge asteroids that use the same orbit with Jupiter; Apollo asteroids are near the earth and keep crossing its orbit and armor is a very small planet that is presumed to be spinning the earth.
  • By letting a space probe orbit the respective asteroids for a specific period of tie and finally letting it and on the asteroids and take the photographs at that specific place.
  • The composition of C type asteroids is carbon and that of S type asteroids is silicon.
  • When far from the sun, comets look like dusty black rocks that have an icy coating.
  • In the oort cloud
  • By studying their nuclei.
  • Because the definition of the word planet has changed and some of the perceived planets do not meet the new specifications.
  • It has the sun which is the central star, constitutes eight planets, has the planet earth which has life, has one main asteroid, Jupiter is its largest planet while the smallest is Venus and has five moons that have atmospheres.
  • The bombard ness that characterizes the random process explains why the solar system is not in an order; it also supports the evolution concept of the planets.
  • They analyze the current theories then using the assumptions, they employ technology in analyzing the underlying theoretical facts.
  • Yes, because only these have traces of life.
  • No question
  • The Core is where fusion reactions take place to yield energy, radioactive zone is define by energy moving towards the sun; the convection zone constitutes transportation of hot gas to the sun’s surface and the photosphere denotes its visible surface.
  • The core has a temperature of 13, 600,000 kelvins and the surface 5, 800 kelvins
  • Hydrogen
  • Solar wind refers to a flow of charged particles whose emission comes fro the upper surface of the earth.
  • Coronal mass ejection can have detrimental effects on the life on earth as the inherent explosions and starbursts reduce the earth’s electron influx.

 

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