Your company has been hired to design a new water treatment plant Cape Town, South Africa, to purify ocean water for domestic use. The water requires the removal of turbidity, disinfection, and removal of sodium chloride. The facility must treat 12,000 kg/min water. The density of the salt water is 1060 kg/m3. Pilot plant studies and saline concentration gives the following information from which to begin:
Ferric chloride as a flocculent should be added at a rate of 1 kg FeCl3 per 4000 kg water and 0.75 kg Ca(OH)2 per 4000 kg water.
Three rapid mix tanks in parallel with a residence time of 36 seconds are required. The tanks should be square with a depth that is 1.6 times the base.
Flocculation vessels should be rectangular with a residence time of 20 minutes. Design for two tanks in parallel. The length should be 3 times the width and the base should equal the width. A separate mixing chamber with paddle is needed for approximately every 3.5 meters length. The paddles have a diameter of 2 meters and their peripheral velocity should not exceed 0.6 m/sec. Determine the tank volumes and dimensions, number of chambers/paddles for each tank, and the rpms for the paddle motors.
Two clarifiers in parallel should have an overflow velocity of no more than 0.0001 m/sec and a residence time of 1.25 hours. Specify dimensions.
Filter beds of coarse sand media are available as units with a packed bed depth of 1.0m and another 0.7 meters for backwashing. The packed bed porosity is 0.42 and the shape factor of the sand is 7.5. Average grain size is 1.3 mm with a density of 2.6 g/cm3. The maximum superficial velocity through the beds is 1.2 m/min.
a) Estimate the pressure loss in each filter that a pump will need to make up
b) Filters can be purchased as a pre-built unit with cross sectional areas of 2.5 m2. Specify how many filters are needed if for every 5 filters on-line one is being regenerated.
c) Specify and qualitatively describe a control scheme for normal operation and regeneration and estimate the minimum fluidization velocity required to backwash the filters.
d) Reverse osmosis membranes will be used to remove NaCl. The salt concentration is 11.7 g/liter NaCl, the average water temperature is 17C, and the applied pressure from pumps will be 8 atm. K for the membrane is 230 liters/m2hratm. If hollow fiber membrane modules can be purchased as units with surface area of 200 m2 each, specify the number required. For every 5 membranes on line a 6th is being regenerated.
Ferric chloride and calcium hydroxide feed rates in kg/min
Volumes and dimensions in m and m3
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